1. Cf. the tenth Pythian ode. See also the fourth book of Herodotus. The Hyperboreans were a mythical people beyond the Rhipaean mountains, in the far North. They enjoyed unbroken happiness and perpetual youth.
2. The lowest of the Hindu castes.
5. David Friedrich Strauss (1808-74), author of "Das Leben Jesu" (1835-6), a very famous work in its day. Nietzsche here refers to it.
6. The word Semiotik is in the text, but it is probable that Semantik is what Nietzsche had in mind.
7. One of the six great systems of Hindu philosophy.
8. The reputed founder of Taoism.
9. Nietzsche's name for one accepting his own philosophy.
10. That is, the strict letter of the law--the chief target of Jesus's early preaching.
11. A reference to the "pure ignorance" (reine Thorheit) of Parsifal.
13. Amphytrion was the son of Alcaeus, King of Tiryns. His wife was Alcmene. During his absence she was visited by Zeus, and bore Heracles.
14. So in the text. One of Nietzsche's numerous coinages, obviously suggested by Evangelium, the German for gospel.
15. To which, without mentioning it, Nietzsche adds verse 48.
16. A paraphrase of Demetrius' "Well roar'd, Lion!" in act v, scene 1 of "A Midsummer Night's Dream." The lion, of course, is the familiar Christian symbol for Mark.
17. Nietzsche also quotes part of verse 2.
18. The quotation also includes verse 47.
20. Verses 20, 21, 26, 27, 28, 29.
21. A paraphrase of Schiller's "Against stupidity even gods struggle in vain."
22. The word training is in English in the text.
24. That is, to say, scepticism. Among the Greeks scepticism was also occasionally called ephecticism.
25. A reference to the University of Tubingen and its famous school of Biblical criticism. The leader of this school was F. C. Baur, and one of the men greatly influenced by it was Nietzsche's pet abomination, David F. Strauss, himself a Suabian. Vide § 10 and § 28.
26. The quotations are from "Also sprach Zarathustra" ii, 24: "Of Priests."
27. The aphorism, which is headed "The Enemies of Truth," makes the direct statement: "Convictions are more dangerous enemies of truth than lies."
28. A reference, of course, to Kant's "Kritik der praktischen Vernunft" (Critique of Practical Reason).